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Identification Factsheets of the
Marine Benthic Flora (Algae)
of Southern Australia

Author: R.N. Baldock (Bob)
© R.N. Baldock 2010-2015

These factsheets have been developed to aid in the identification of species from the rich algal diversity of our southern Australian coasts. Through the personal efforts of Emeritus Professor H.B.S. Womersley and those of his many students and helpers, some 90,000 algal specimens have been added to the main collection in the State Herbarium of South Australia. Added to this are 20,000 prepared microscope slides of algal structures essential in species identification.

An overview of the algae factsheets is contained in the introduction.

As an Honorary Associate of The State Herbarium of South Australia, Bob has spent many years photographing the species and slides to provide this rich visual experience.

Marine Indicator Species of Southern Australian Reefs

I. Calcareous Flat Reefs in Temperate Waters of Moderate Wave Action

II. Reefs of Resistant Crystalline Rocks in Rough Temperate Waters

III. Calcareous Reefs of Dune-Rock (aeolianite) in Rough Cold-Temperate Waters

IV. Calcareous Reefs and Deep Sediments in S Australian Gulfs

Pictured Keys of Common Southern Australian Marine Plants

Major Groups

marine plant Divisions

blue green algae

green algae

sea grasses

turf and fouling algae

I The Ectocarpaceae

II mat & turf species

III thread and wormlike brown algae

Brown algae

large brown algae

hollow brown algae

ribbon and strap like brown algae

wiry brown algae

cystophora

sargassum

sphacelaria

Red algae

broad bladed red algae

coralline red algae

feathery flat-branched red algae

filamentous red algae Master Key

filamentous red algae Part I

filamentous red algae Part II

filamentous red algae Part III

filamentous red algae Part IV

filamentous red algae Part V

filamentous red algae Part VI

filamentous red algae Part VII

filamentous red algae Part VIII

narrow branched red algae

red mesh algae

slimy red algae

sponge-covered red algae

strap-like & narrow-leaved red algae

chondria and husseya

laurencia and chondrophycus

order nemaliales

polysiphonia

Southern Australian Groups at a glance

Acrotylaceae

Anotrichium

Areschougiaceae

Austrophyllis and Callophyllis

Bead-like red algae

Bonnemaisoniaceae

Callophycus

Champiaceae

Cystocloniaceae

Delesseriaceae

Dicranemataceae

Dumontiaceae

Gelidiaceae

Gigartina

Gigartinaceae

Gracilariaceae

Griffithsia

Halymeniaceae

Hildenbrandia

Hypneaceae

Kallymenia

Lomentariaceae

Mychodea

Nemastomataceae

Nizymenia

Peyssonneliaceae

Phacelocarpus

Phyllophoraceae

Plocamium

Polysiphonia

Porphyra

Rhodymeniaceae

Cystophora

Cystophora look alikes

Dictyotaceae

Sargassum

Sargassum look alikes

Caulerpa

Chaetomorpha

Cladophora species group IIIA

Cladophora species group IIIB

Cladophora species group II

Cladophora species group I

Codium

Rhizoclonium

Ulva

Rhodophyta (red algae)

Acanthophora dendroides

Acrosorium ciliolatum

Acrosorium minus

Acrosymphyton taylorii

Acrotylus australis

Adelophycus corneus

Aeodes nitidissima

Ahnfeltiopsis fastigiata

Ahnfeltiopsis humilis

Amansia mamillaris

Amphiplexia hymenocladioides

Amphiplexia racemosa

Anotrichium crinitum

Anotrichium elongatum

Anotrichium licmophorum

Anotrichium subtile

Anotrichium tenue

Anotrichium towinna

Antithamnion diminuatum

Antithamnion uniramosum

Antithamnioniella glandifera

Antrocentrum nigrescens

Apoglossum spathulatum

Areschougia

Areschougia congesta

Areschougia ligulata

Areschougia stuartii

Asparagopsis armata

Asparagopsis taxiformis

Audouinella blumii

Audouinella nakamurae

Austroclonium charoides

Austrophyllis alcicornis

Austrophyllis harveyana

Bangia atropurpurea atropurpurea

Bangia atropurpurea subsp. brevisegmenta

Bead-like red algae

Betaphycus speciosum

Bonnemaisonia australis

Bonnemaisonia spinescens

Bornetia binderiana

Bornetia tenuis

Botryocladia sonderi

Botryoglossum cartilagineum

Calliblepharis planicaulis

Callithamnion circinnatum

Callithamnion confertum

Callithamnion pinnatum

Callithamnion propebyssoides

Callophycus costatus

Callophycus dorsifera

Callophycus harveyanus

Callophycus laxus

Callophycus oppositifolius

Callophyllis cervicornis

Callophyllis lambertii

Callophyllis rangiferina

Caloglossa leprieurii

Caloglossa ogasawaraensis

Capreolia implexa

Carpopeltis elata

Carpopeltis phyllophora

Carpopeltis spongiiplexa

Catenella nipae

Cephalocystis furcellata

Ceramium cupulatum

Ceramium wilsonii

Chamaethamnion schizandra

Champia affinis

Champia insignis

Champia parvula

Champia viridis

Champia zostericola

Champiocolax lobata

Chauviniella coriifolia

Chondria hieroglyphica

Chondria lanceolata

Chondria subsecunda

Chylocladia grandis

Cirrulicarpus nanus

Cirrulicarpus polycoelioides

Claudea elegans

Claviclonium ovatum

Coelarthrum cliftonii

Coelarthrum opuntia

Coeloclonium debile

Cottoniella fusiformis

Craspedocarpus blepharicarpus

Craspedocarpus ramentaceus

Craspedocarpus tenuifolius

Craspedocarpus venosus

Crassilingua marginifera

Crouania brunyana

Cryptonemia digitata

Cryptonemia kallymenioides

Cryptonemia nitophylloides

Cryptonemia undulata

Cryptonemia wilsonii

Curdiea angustata

Curdiea crassa

Curdiea obesa

Dasya atactica

Dasya hapalathrix

Dasya tenuis

Dasyphloea insignis

Dasythamniella superbiens

Delisea elegans

Delisea hypneoides

Delisea plumosa

Delisea pulchra

Dichotomaria australis

Dichotomaria obtusata

Dichotomaria spathulata (Galaxaura marginata)

Dicranema cincinnalis

Dicranema revolutum

Dicroglossum crispatulum

Doxodasya hirta

Dudresnaya australis

Episporium centroceratis

Erythroclonium angustatum

Erythroclonium muelleri

Erythroclonium sedoides

Erythroclonium sonderi

Erythronaema ceramioides

Erythronema ceramioides

Erythrotrichia ligulata

Erythrymenia minuta

Faucheopsis coronata

Ganonema codii

Ganonema farinosum

Gelidiella antipai

Gelidiella ramellosa

Gelidium asperum

Gelidium australe

Gelidium crinale

Gelinaria ulvoidea

Gibsmithia womersleyi

Gigartina brachiata

Gigartina densa

Gigartina disticha

Gigartina muelleriana

Gigartina pinnata

Gigartina recurva

Gigartina sonderi

Gigartina wehliae

Glaphyrymenia pustulosa

Gloiocladia australis

Gloiocladia fruticulosa

Gloiocladia halymenioides

Gloiocladia polycladia

Gloiophloea rosea

Gloiophloea scinaioides

Gloiophyllis barkeriae

Gloiosaccion brownii

Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis

Grateloupia intestinalis

Grateloupia ovata

Grateloupia subpectinata

Griffithsia balara

Griffithsia crassiuscula

Griffithsia elegans

Griffithsia grandis

Griffithsia gunniana

Griffithsia monilis

Griffithsia ovalis

Griffithsia pilalyea

Griffithsia pulvinata

Griffithsia teges

Gymnogongrus crenulatus

Gymnogongrus griffithsieae

Gymnothamnion nigrescens

Halicnide similans

Halopeltis australis

Halopeltis cuneata

Halopeltis cuneata (halymenioides)

Halopeltis verrucosa

Halymenia floresia

Halymenia kraftii

Halymenia muelleri

Halymenia plana

Haraldia australica

Haraldiophyllum erosum

Haraldiophyllum nottii

Helminthocladia australis

Helminthocladia beaugleholei

Helminthocladia densa

Helminthocladia dotyi

Helminthora australis

Helminthora lindaueri

Hemineura frondosa

Hennedya crispa

Heterodoxia denticulata

Heterostroma nereidiis

Heterothamnion platythalieae

Heterothamnion sessile

Hildenbrandia crouaniorum

Hildenbrandia lecannellieri

Hildenbrandia patula

Hildenbrandia rubra

Hirsutithallia abaxialis

Hormophora australasica

Hymenena affinis

Hymenena curdieana

Hymenena endiviaefolia

Hymenena multipartita

Hymenocladia chondricola

Hymenocladia divaricata

Hymenocladia filiformis

Hymenocladia usnea

Hypnea charoides

Hypnea filiformis

Hypnea ramentacea

Hypnea valentiae

Hypoglossum armatum

Hypoglossum dendroides

Hypoglossum harveyanum

Hypoglossum harveyanum var fimbriatum

Hypoglossum heterocystideum

Hypoglossum protendens

Hypoglossum revolutum

Interthamnion attenuatum

Kallymenia cribrogloea

Kallymenia cribrosa

Kallymenia rubra

Kallymenia spinosa

Kallymenia tasmanica

Kraftia dichotoma

Laurencia distichophylla

Leptophyllis conferta

Leptosomia rosea

Liagora harveyana

Liagora wilsoniana

Lomentaria australis

Lomentaria monochlamydea

Lomentaria pyramidalis

Lophosiphonia obscura

Martensia australis

Melanema dumosum

Melanthalia abscissa

Melanthalia concinna

Melanthalia obtusata

Micropeuce proxima

Micropeuce sarcocaulon

Mychodea acanthymenia

Mychodea acicularis

Mychodea australis

Mychodea carnosa

Mychodea disticha

Mychodea gracilaria

Mychodea hamata

Mychodea marginifera

Mychodea pusilla

Mychodea ramulosa

Mychodea spinulifera

Myriogramme cartilaginea

Myriogramme gunniana

Naccaria

Nanopera merrifieldiae

Nemalion helmithoides

Nitophyllum crispum

Nitophyllum fallax

Nitophyllum pulchellum

Nitospinosa littledipensis

Nitospinosa pristoidea

Nitospinosa tasmanica

Nizymenia australis

Nizymenia conferta

Nizymenia furcata

Nothogenia fastigiata

Pachymenia orbicularis

Peltasta australis

Peyssonnelia boudouresquei

Peyssonnelia capensis

Peyssonnelia dubyi

Peyssonnelia foliosa

Peyssonnelia inamoena

Peyssonnelia novae-hollandiae

Peyssonnelia splendens

Phitymophora amansioides

Phitymophora hypoglossum

Phycodrys australasica

Pityophycos tasmanica

Placophora binderi

Platoma australicum

Platoma foliosum

Platyclinia crenulata

Platyclinia stipitata

Pollexfenia crispata

Pollexfenia lobata

Pollexfenia pedicellata

Polycoelia laciniata

Polyopes constrictus

Polyopes tasmanicus

Polyopes tenuis

Polysiphonia brevisegmenta

Polysiphonia haplodasyae

Polysiphonia propagulifera

Polysiphonia teges

Porphyra columbina

Porphyra lucasii

Porphyra woolhousiae

Porphyridium purpureum

Predaea huismanii

Pterocladia lucida

Pterocladia rectangularis

Pterocladiella (Pterocladia) capillacea

Pterocladiella minima

Pterothamnion flexile

Ptilocladia gracilis

Ptilonia australasica

Ptilonia subulifera

Ptilophora prolifera

Rhabdonia clavigera

Rhabdonia coccinea

Rhabdonia verticillata

Rhipidothamnion secundum

Rhodoglossum gigartinoides

Rhodopeltis australis

Rhodophyllis membranacea

Rhodophyllis multipartita

Rhodophyllis volans

Rhodymenia cuneata

Rhodymenia foliifera

Rhodymenia halymeniodes

Rhodymenia leptophylla

Rhodymenia obtusa

Rhodymenia prolificans

Rhodymenia stenoglossa

Rhodymeniocolax austrina

Robea costata

Sarcodia marginata

Sarconema filiforme

Sarcothalia crassifolia

Sarcothalia insidiosa

Sarcothalia radula

Scageliopsis patens

Schizoseris bombayensis

Schizoseris hymenena

Schizoseris perriniae

Schizoseris tasmanica

Schizymenia dubyi

Schottera nicaeensis

Scinaia acuta

Scinaia arborealis

Scinaia proliferata

Scinaia tsinglanensis

Semnocarpa corynephora

Semnocarpa minuta

Solieria robusta

Solieria tenera

Sonderopelta coriacea

Stenogramme interrupta

Stenogramme leptophylla

Stictosporum nitophylloides

Sympodophyllum reinboldii

Taenioma perpusillum

Thamnoclonium dichotomum

Thamnophyllis lacerata

Tikvahiella candida

Tolypiocladia penningtonensis

Trematocarpus affinis

Trematocarpus concinnus

Tsengia comosa

Tsengia feredayae

Tsengia laingii

Tylocolax microcarpus

Tylotus obtusatus

Webervanbossea kaliformis

Webervanbossea splachnoides

Webervanbossea tasmanensis

Womersleya monanthos

Zymurgia chondriopsidea

Brown algae

Acrotrichium amphibolis

Chlanidophora microphylla

Colpomenia ecuticulata

Dictyopteris acrostichoides

Dictyopteris australis

Dictyopteris gracilis

Dictyopteris muelleri

Dictyopteris nigricans

Dictyota alternifida

Dictyota dichotoma

Dictyota diemensis

Dictyota fenestrata

Dictyota furcellata

Dictyota naevosa

Dictyota radicans (prolifera)

Dilophus angustus

Dilophus crinitus

Dilophus fastigiatus

Dilophus gunnianus

Dilophus marginatus

Dilophus robustus

Dilophus tener

Discosporangium mesarthrocarpum

Distromium flabellatum

Distromium multifidum

Elachista claytoniae

Exallosorus olsenii

Glossophora nigricans

Gononema ramosum

Halothrix ephemeralis

Hapalospongidion capitatum

Homoeostrichus canaliculatus

Homoeostrichus sinclairii

Kuetzingiella species

Lobophora variegata

Lobospira bicuspidata

Mesogloiopsis tasmanica

Myriactula caespitosa

Myriactula filiformis

Myrionema latipilosum

Nereia lophoclada

Pachydictyon paniculatum

Pachydictyon polycladum

Padina elegans

Padina fraseri

Padina gymnospora

Padina sanctae-crucis

Papenfussiella extensa

Sargassum kendrickii

Scoresbyella profunda

Spatoglossum australasicum

Sphacelaria chorizocarpa

Sphacelaria multiplex

Sphacelaria spuria

Sphacella subtilissima

Sporochnema tomentosum

Strepsithalia aemula

Strepsithalia leathesiae

Taonia australasica

Zonaria angustata

Zonaria crenata

Zonaria spiralis

Zonaria turneriana

Green algae

Acetabularia calyculus

Acetabularia peniculus

Apjohnia laetevirens

Avrainvillea clavatiramea

Blidingia marginata

Blidingia minima

Bryopsis australis

Bryopsis foliosa

Bryopsis gemellipara

Bryopsis macraildii

Bryopsis minor

Bryopsis plumosa

Bryopsis vestita

Callipsygma wilsonis

Caulerpa alternans

Caulerpa brownii

Caulerpa cactoides

Caulerpa cliftonii

Caulerpa distichophylla

Caulerpa ellistoniae

Caulerpa flexilis

Caulerpa hedleyi

Caulerpa hodgkinsoniae

Caulerpa longifolia

Caulerpa obscura

Caulerpa papillosa

Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea

Caulerpa remotifolia

Caulerpa scalpelliformis

Caulerpa sedoides

Caulerpa simpliciuscula

Caulerpa taxifolia

Caulerpa trifaria

Caulerpa vesiculifera

Chaetomorpha aerea

Chaetomorpha billardieri

Chaetomorpha capillaris

Chaetomorpha coliformis

Chaetomorpha indica

Chaetomorpha linum

Chaetomorpha melagonium

Chaetomorpha valida

Chlorodesmis baculifera

Cladophora aegagropiloidea

Cladophora rhizoclonioidea

Cladophoropsis herpestica

Cladophoropsis magna

Cladophoropsis membranacea

Codium apiculatum

Codium australicum

Codium capitulatum

Codium dimorphum

Codium duthieae

Codium fragile

Codium galeatum

Codium harveyi

Codium laminarioides

Codium lucasii

Codium mamillosum

Codium muelleri

Codium perriniae

Codium pomoides

Codium silvae

Codium spinescens

Codium spongiosum

Dasycladus densus

Derbesia marina, Halicystis ovalis

Derbesia tenuissima, Halicystis ovalis

Dictyosphaeria sericea

Enteromorpha clathrata

Enteromorpha compressa

Enteromorpha flexuosa

Enteromorpha intestinalis

Enteromorpha linza

Enteromorpha paradoxa

Enteromorpha prolifera

Enteromorpha ralfsii

Entocladia viridis

Halimeda cuneata

Lamprothamion papulosum

Microdictyon umbilicatum

Palmellaceae

Pedobesia clavaeformis

Percursaria percursa

Prasiola crispa

Prasiola stipitata

Pseudochlorodesmis australis

Pseudocodium australasicum

Rhipilia pusilla

Rhipiliopsis peltata

Rhipiliopsis robusta

Rhizoclonium curvatum

Rhizoclonium implexicum

Rhizoclonium riparium

Rhizoclonium tortuosum

Rosenvingiella polyrhiza

Sporocladopsis (Pilinia) novae-zelandieae

Struvea plumosa

Ulothrix subflaccida

Ulva australis

Ulva fasciata

Ulva lactuca

Ulva rigida

Ulva spathulata

Ulva taeniata

Ulvaria oxysperma

Ulvaria shepherdii

Uronema marinum

Urospora penicilliformis

Wittrockiella salina

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