S. rixosum (as S. furfuraceum) in J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4: 248 (1981), fig. 109 by M Szent-Ivany.

Distribution map generated from Australia's Virtual Herbarium .


Solanum rixosum A.R.Bean, Austrobaileya 6: 759 (2004)

T: Qld, 0.5 km along Duck Creek road, near O'Reilly's Guest House, 11 Dec 1999, A.R.Bean 15899; holo: BRI; iso: AD, CANB, NSW. An image of the type specimen can be found at

S. furfuraceum auct. non R.Br.: Symon, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4: 249, p.p. with respect to Coveny specimen and fig. 109.

Solanum sp. B (aff. sporadotrichum) sensu S.W.L.Jacobs & J.Pickard, Pl. New South Wales 204 (1981)

Solanum sp. 1 in Ross, Fl. SE Qld 2: 415 (1986)

Solanum sp. (Benarkin R.J.Henderson H297) in Henderson, Names Distrib. Qld Pl. (2002).


Erect, rhizomatous perennial shrub, 1-2 m high. Juvenile branchlets with 10-30 prickles per dm; leaves (in outline) broadly ovate, shallowly-lobed, with 1-3 pairs of lobes; lamina 9-15 cm long, 4-8 cm wide, with 10-40 prickles on upper surface. Adult branchlets yellow or rusty; prickles absent or present, 0-15 per dm, straight, acicular, 3-10 mm long, 10-14 times longer than wide; stellae very dense, 0.3-0.4 mm diameter, stalks 0-0.2 mm long; lateral rays 4-8, porrect; central ray 1-2 times as long as laterals, not gland-tipped; finger hairs absent; Type 2 hairs absent.

Adult leaves ovate, entire or shallowly lobed throughout; lobes 1-3 on each side, obtuse, lobing index 1-1.3; lamina 6-12 cm long, 2.9-4.8 cm wide, 1.8-2.6 times longer than broad, apex acute, base cuneate or obtuse, oblique part 0-4 mm long, obliqueness index 0-4 percent; petioles 0.7-1.4 cm long, 8-14% length of lamina, prickles absent. Upper leaf surface green; prickles 0-10, straight, acicular, 4-10 mm long, prickles absent or present on mid-vein only or present on mid-vein and lateral veins; stellate hairs distributed throughout; proto-stellae absent; ordinary stellae very sparse to sparse, 0.7-1.6 mm apart, 0.4-0.8 mm across, stalks 0-0.2 mm long; lateral rays 6-9, porrect or ascending; central ray 1-1.5 times as long as laterals, not gland-tipped; finger hairs absent; Type 2 hairs absent. Lower leaf surface yellowish; prickles absent; stellae dense, 0.1-0.4 mm apart, 0.5-0.8 mm diameter, stalks 0.2-0.6 mm long; lateral rays 7-9, porrect; central ray 1-1.5 times as long as laterals, not gland-tipped; finger hairs absent; Type 2 hairs absent.

Inflorescence supra-axillary, pseudo-racemose, common peduncle 1-6 mm long, rachis prickles absent; 2-15- flowered, weakly andromonoecious, flowers 5-merous; pedicels 6-11 mm long at anthesis, same thickness throughout, 0.5-0.8 mm thick at mid-point, prickles absent. Calyx tube 1.5-3 mm long, lobes attenuate, 7-9 mm long; prickles absent at anthesis; stellae very dense, yellow or brown or rusty, 0.5-0.6 mm across, stalks 0-0.2 mm long, lateral rays 8-9, central ray 1-1.5 times as long as laterals, not gland-tipped; finger hairs absent; Type 2 hairs absent. Corolla purple, 9-14 mm long, shallowly lobed, inner surface sparsely stellate-hairy; anthers 5-6 mm long; ovary with stellate and Type 2 hairs; functional style 7.5-10 mm long, erect, glabrous or with Type 2 hairs only or with stellate and Type 2 hairs, stellae 0.4-0.5 mm across, lateral rays 6-9, central ray 1-1.5 times as long as laterals.

Fruiting calyx with lobes less than half length of mature fruit, prickles absent. Mature fruits 1-3 per inflorescence, globular, 19-24 mm diameter, yellowish-green or green, 2 or 3-locular; placenta in cross-section stalked, anvil-shaped; mesocarp moist but not juicy; exocarp 0.9-1.2 mm thick; pedicels 17-26 mm long in fruit, 1-1.4 mm thick at mid-point; seeds pale yellow, 2.2-2.7 mm long.

Description by Bean, reproduced, with permission, from Austrobaileya 6: 759 (2004).

Another detailed description by Bean can be found at

Distribution and ecology

Occurs in or adjacent to disturbed areas of rainforest in an area stretching from the Bunya Mts of SE Qld to Kyogle in NE NSW.


Part of the S. macoorai group of subgen. Leptostemonum according to Bean (2004).

Closely related to S. furfuraceum and treated as this species in Symon (1981) and Purdie et al. (1982). The two species differ by

Derivation of epithet

From the Latin rixosus meaning quarrelsome, a reference to the differences of opinion of botanists regarding the taxonomic status of this species.


Selected specimens

QLD: BURNETT DISTRICT: Bunya Mtns, Oct 1919, White s.n. (BRI);Bunya Mountains, Oct 1958, Mitchener (BRI); 2.5 km E of Mt Mowbullan, Bunya Mountains, Sep 1988, Forster PIF5795 & Bird (AD, BRI, MEL). WIDE BAY DISTRICT: Blackall Range, May 1910, Keys (BRI); Blackall Range, Dec 1916, White s.n. (BRI); Conondale Range (S.F.274 Conondale), Booloumba L.A., Oct 1982, McDonald 3575 & Williams (BRI, MEL, NSW); Mt Glastonbury, Sep 1986, Sharpe 4515 & Bean (BRI); Peters L.A., Conondale Ranges, Nov 1990, Bean 2694 (BRI). DARLING DOWNS DISTRICT: Cunninghams Gap, undated, Bailey (BRI); Killarney, Oct 1891, coll. unknown (BRI); Westcott, Bunya Mountains, Feb 1995, Fairfax 61 (BRI); 800 m S of Cherry Plain picnic area [Bunya Mountains], Nov 1996, Holland 1147 (BRI). MORETON DISTRICT: Peecheys [Ashgrove, Brisbane], Aug 1888, Simmonds (BRI); Rosewood, May 1918, White s.n. (BRI); Tamborine Mtn, Dec 1921, White 1789 (BRI); Blackbutt Range near Moore, May 1967, Griffin (BRI); Benarkin S.F., c. 15 miles [24 km] E of Yarraman, May 1967, Henderson H253 (BRI); Levers Plateau, on Qld/N.S.W. border, c. 90 km SSW of Brisbane, Apr 1972, Henderson H1284 (BRI); D'Aguilar Range, NW of Brisbane, Apr 1972, Moriarty 906 (BRI); Ravensbourne, N of Toowoomba, Nov 1985, Swarbrick 8337 (BRI); S.F.809 Laceys Creek, D'Aguilar Range, Oct 1993, Forster PIF13992 (AD, BRI, K, MEL, QRS); 3.2 km along Duck Creek road, near O'Reillys Guest House, Jan 2000, Bean 15970 (BRI, NSW). NSW: NORTH COAST: Toonumbar S.F., c. 26 km NW of Kyogle, Feb 1972, Henderson H1266, H1267 & Parham (BRI); Eden Creek Falls, Toonumbar S.F., Sep 1972, Coveny 4410 (BRI, NSW); lower slope of Mt Lindesay, 7 miles [11 km] ENE of Woodenbong, Sep 1972, Coveny 4542 & Rodd (BRI, NSW).

From the web

Images of S. rixosum can be accessed through Bean's description of this species at

Further information on this species in NSW can be seen on the PlantNET site

A photograph of this species by Hugh & Nan Nicholson can be seen on the Terania Rainforest Publishing Photo Library site.

Further information, images and links for this species can be found on the Solanaceae Source site.