Solanum parvifolium R. Br. ssp. parvifolium
Solanum parvifolium R. Br., Prodr. 446 (1810); T: Broad Sound, R. Brown s.n.; lecto: BM; iso: K, MPU; fide D.E. Symon, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4: 132 (1981). Images of the lectotype and isolectotype in BM can be seen on the Solanaceae Source site.
Solanum accedens Domin, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 12: 130 (1913); T: [Qld], Rockhampton, s.dat., J.Dallachy s.n.; holo: K.
Solanum stelligerum auct.non R.Br.: Symon, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4: 128 (1981), p.p.
Erect woody shrub, dark green, pubescent with minute stellate hairs; hairs sparse or absent on upper leaf-surface, dense on lower surface; prickles 4–10 mm long, scattered to abundant on stems, rare or absent elsewhere.
Leaves linear-oblong; lamina mostly 3–6 cm long, 6–10 mm wide, discolorous, entire; petiole 3–5 mm long, sometimes longer. Inflorescence short, 1–5–flowered; peduncle to 6 mm long; pedicels 5–10 mm long, lengthened in fruit. Calyx 3–4 mm long; lobes oblong or triangular, 1–2 mm long. Corolla stellate, deeply incised, 10–15 mm diam., pale blue or white. Anthers 3–5 mm long.
Berry globular, 5–8 mm diam., bright red; fruiting pedicels 1.2–2 cm long. Seeds 2–2.5 mm long, pale yellow or brown.
Description of S. parvifolium from Flora of Australia 29 : 125(1982).
Erect, rhizomatous perennial shrub, 0.5–1.2 m high. Juvenile stage unknown. Adult branchlets grey or brown; prickles 1–20 per decimetre, straight, acicular, 0.5–7 mm long, 10–18 times longer than wide; stellae sparse to dense, 0.2–0.4 mm diameter, sessile; lateral rays 6–8, porrect; central ray 0.2–1 times as long as laterals, not gland-tipped; finger hairs absent; Type 2 hairs sparse.
Adult leaves linear or narrow lanceolate, entire; lamina 2.5–7 cm long, 0.5–1.5 cm wide, 3.7–7.5 times longer than broad, apex obtuse or acute, base cuneate, oblique part 0–3 mm long, obliqueness index 0–4 percent; petioles 0.2–0.9 cm long, 7–16% length of lamina, prickles absent. Upper leaf surface green; prickles absent; stellate hairs confined to midrib, or distributed throughout; protostellae absent; ordinary stellae very sparse, 0.8–5 mm apart, 0.3–0.5 mm across, sessile; lateral rays 7 or 8, porrect; central ray 0.8–1.2 times as long as laterals, not gland-tipped; finger hairs absent; Type 2 hairs absent. Lower leaf surface white or yellowish; prickles absent; stellae very dense, c. 0.05 mm apart, 0.2–0.5 mm diameter, stalks 0–0.1 mm long; lateral rays 7–9, porrect; central ray 0.2–1 times as long as laterals, not gland-tipped; finger hairs absent; Type 2 hairs absent.
Inflorescence supra-axillary, solitary or pseudo-racemose, common peduncle 0–4 mm long, rachis prickles absent; 1–8-flowered, with all flowers bisexual and 5-merous; pedicels 7–13 mm long at anthesis, same thickness throughout, 0.4–0.7 mm thick at mid-point, prickles absent. Calyx tube 1.5–3 mm long, lobes deltate, 1–3 mm long; prickles absent at anthesis; stellae dense, yellow or white, 0.25–0.4 mm across, sessile, lateral rays 7 or 8, central ray 0.2–1 times as long as laterals, not gland-tipped; finger hairs absent; Type 2 hairs absent. Corolla purple, 7–9 mm long, shallowly or deeply lobed, inner surface glabrous; anthers 3.5–5 mm long; ovary with Type 2 hairs only; functional style 3.5–6.5 mm long, erect, with Type 2 hairs only or with stellate and Type 2 hairs, stellae 0.3–0.4 mm across, lateral rays 7 or 8, central ray c. 0.3 times as long as laterals.
Fruiting calyx with lobes less than half length of mature fruit, prickles absent. Mature fruits 1–6 per inflorescence, globular, 6–8 mm diameter, red, 1-locular (septum absent or incomplete); placenta not apparent; mesocarp juicy, succulent; pedicels 11–27 mm long in fruit, 0.5–0.7 mm thick at mid-point; seeds pale yellow, 1.9–2.3 mm long.
A.R.Bean's description of S. parvifolium ssp. parvifolium from Austrobaileya 6: 699 (2004), reproduced with permission.
Distribution and ecology
Occurs from Charters Towers in Qld to north-eastern NSW; it has been recorded from brigalow scrubs, vine thickets and Eucalyptus woodland.
Part of the S. ferocissimum group of subgen. Leptostemonum according to Bean (2004) together with S. chenopodinum, S. corifolium, S. defensum, S. discolor, S. dissectum, S. dryanderense, S. dysprosium, S. ferocissimum, S. fervens, S. inaequilaterum, S. latens, S. lythrocarpum, S. mentiens, S. shirleyanum, S. stelligerum and S. yirrkalense .
The two subspecies of S. parvifolium differ by
- the longer and broader leaves in ssp. tropicum,
- the upper leaf surface with glandular hairs in ssp. tropicum, these lacking in the typical variety,
- the longer pedicels and styles in ssp. tropicum,
- the presence of male flowers in the inflorescence in ssp. tropicum, lacking in ssp. parvifolium,
- and the ovary either glabrous or with mixed stellate and glandular hairs in ssp. tropicum, but with only glandular hairs in ssp. parvifolium.
Ssp. parvifolium has a more southerly distribution than ssp. tropicum.
Derivation of epithet
From the Latinparvus, meaning s mall, and folium meaning leaf, a reference to the supposedly small leaves of this species .
Qld: Benandri, S.L. Everist 7153 (AD, CANB); Moura, R. Henderson 203 (BRI). N.S.W.: Warrumbungle Mtns, 23 May 1948, E.F. Constable (NSW);
Specimens cited Flora of Australia 29: 125 (1982), for species.
QLD: NORTH KENNEDY DISTRICT: 14 km E of ‘Mt Cooper’ HS, Jun 1992, Thompson CHA141 & Sharpe (AD, BISH, BRI).
Specimens cited for S. parvifolium ssp. parvifolium by Bean, Austrobaileya 6: 699 (2004).
From the web
Further information on this sub-species in NSW can be seen on the PlantNET site together with photographs and images of a herbarium specimen.
A photograph of this species by Hugh & Nan Nicholson can be seen on the Terania Rainforest Publishing Photo Library site and a specimen in the Canberra Botanic Gardens at http://www.anbg.gov.au/photo/apii/id/dig/5138.
Further information, images of herbarium specimens and links for this species can be found on the Solanaceae Source site. The subspecies are also treated separately from this page.