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Ballia ballioides (Sonder) Wollaston 1968: 316, fig. 22F–I; 1974: 25, figs 15–17.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Order Ceramiales – Family Ceramiaceae – Tribe Pterothamnieae


Callithamnion ballioides Sonder 1853: 674.

Ballia robertiana Harvey 1855b: 335; 1858: pl. 36; 1859b: 332. J. Agardh 1876: 58. De Toni 1903: 1394. Dickinson 1949: 29. Guiler 1952: 97. Lucas 1909: 51; 1929a: 25; 1929b: 52. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 349. May 1965: 367. Reinbold 1897: 60. Sonder 1881: 11. Tate 1882: 17. Tisdall 1898: 502. Wilson 1892: 186. Womersley 1950: 179

Thallus (Fig. 69D) dark red-brown, erect, 10–18 cm high, more or less complanately and alternately branched above, densely rhizoidally corticated below, with each axial cell bearing a whorl of 3 whorl-branchlets (Fig. 69E, 70K), 1 major opposite 2 minor. Holdfast rhizoidal, conical, 1–4 mm across. Structure. Apical cells 8–10 µm in diameter and L/D 0.8–1.2 (Fig. 70J), enlarging rapidly to 200–350 µm in diameter and L/D (1–) 1.5–2 in lower axial cells; corticating rhizoids 20–35 µm in diameter, cells long. Major whorl-branchlets (Fig. 69E, F) 1.5–3 mm long, distichously branched with 8–16 opposite pairs of pinnules which are pinnate with close set opposite branches and 200–400 µm long; basal cells of whorl-branchlets 100–150 µm in diameter and L/D 0.7–1, suprabasal cells L/D 2–3, tapering to subterminal cells 10–15 µm in diameter and L/D 0.8–1, terminal cells pointed; pinnule basal cells 20–28 µm in diameter and L/D 0.8–1.2, tapering to 8–12 µm in diameter and L/D 0.8–1.2, cells of their branches 9–14 µm in diameter and L/D 0.8–1, apical cells pointed. Minor whorl-branchlets 500–800 (–1000) µm long, rachis upwardly curved, bearing pairs of pinnules which are simple or branched. Lateral branches arise in place of major whorl-branches. Cells uninucleate; rhodoplasts discoid..

Reproduction: Gametophytes dioecious. Procarp and carposporophyte development very similar to that in B. mariana. Carpogonial branches (Fig. 70L) borne on the basal cells of successive, alternating, major whorl-branchlets, with 2 involucral branches from the supporting cell and the whorl-branchlet surrounding the carposporophyte (Fig. 70M), with gonimolobes 180–250 µm across and carposporangia 16–20 µm across. Spermatangia borne terminally on special branch systems on cells of the minor whorl-branchlets and branches of the pinnules.

Tetrasporangia (Fig. 70N) occur terminally on branches from the basal cells of major whorl-branchlets, ovoid, 30–50 µm in diameter, decussately divided.

Type from Guichen Bay, S. Aust. (Mueller); holotype in MEL, 8545.

Selected specimens: St Francis I., Isles of St Francis, S. Aust., 55 m deep (Shepherd, 9.i.1971; AD, A38081). Pearson I., S. Aust., 22 m deep (Shepherd, 12.i.1969; AD, A34031). Port Elliot, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 17.x.1948; AD, A9345). Boatswain Point, Guichen Bay, S. Aust., drift (Wollaston, 17.v.1965; AD, A29279). Robe, S. Aust., drift (Wollaston, 19.v.1964; AD, A27912). Stinky Bay, Nora Creina, S. Aust., drift (Parsons, 9.ii.1968; AD, A32875). 1.3 km off Cape Northumberland, S. Aust., 15 m deep (Shepherd, 26.x.1977; AD, A55240). 12 km S of Vivonne Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., 50–70 m deep (Lutz, 24.xi.1968; AD, A33016). Port Fairy, Vic. (Harvey, Alg. Aust. Exsicc. 500). Warrnambool, Vic., drift (Womersley, 13.iv.1959; AD, A22940). Port Phillip, Vic. (MEL, 8553). Eddystone Point, Tas. (Perrin, Nov. 1949; AD, A16474). Fluted Cape, Bruny I., Tas., 16 m deep (Shepherd, 10.ii.1972; AD, A41508).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: St Francis I., S. Aust., to Port Phillip, Vic., and E Tasmania.


AGARDH, J.G. (1876). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 1- Epicrisis systematic Floridearum, pp. i-vii, 1–724. (Weigel: Leipzig.)

DE TONI, G.B. (1903). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 3, pp. 775–1521 + 1523–1525. (Padua.)

DICKINSON, C.I. (1949). Two little known species of Ballia, B. beckeri Schmitz and B. hamulosa Ag. Kew Bull. 1949(1), 29–31.

GUILER, E.R. (1952). The marine algae of Tasmania. Checklist with localities. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasmania 86, 71–106.

HARVEY, W.H. (1855b). Short characters of some new genera and species of algae discovered on the coast of the Colony of Victoria, Australia. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 15 (ser. 2), 332–336.

HARVEY, W.H. (1858). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 1, Plates 1–60. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1859b). Algae. In Hooker, J.D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. III. Flora Tasmaniae. Vol. II, pp. 282–343, Plates 185–196. (Reeve: London.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. & PERRIN, F. (1947). The Seaweeds of South Australia. Part 2. The Red Seaweeds. (Govt Printer: Adelaide.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1909). Revised list of the Fucoideae and Florideae of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 34, 9–60.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929a). The marine algae of Tasmania. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm. 1928, 6–27.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929b). A census of the marine algae of South Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 53, 45–53.

MAY, V. (1965). A census and key to the species of Rhodophyceae (red algae) recorded from Australia. Contr. N.S.W. natn. Herb. 3, 349–429.

REINBOLD, T. (1897). Die Algen der Lacepede und Guichen Bay und deren näherer Umgebung (Süd Australien), gesammelt von Dr. A. Engelhart-Kingston. Nuova Notarisia 8, 41–62.

SONDER, O.W. (1853). Plantae Muellerianae. Algae. Linnaea 25, 657–709.

SONDER, O.W. (1881). In Mueller, F., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Supplementum ad volumen undecinum: Algae Australianae hactenus cognitae, pp. 1–42, 105–107. (Melbourne.)

TATE, R. (1882). A list of the charas, mosses, liverworts, lichens, fungs, and algals of extratropical South Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 4, 5–24.

TISDALL, H.T. (1898). The algae of Victoria. Rep. 7th Meet. Aust. Ass. Adv. Sci., Sydney, 1898, pp. 493–516.

WILSON, J.B. (1892). Catalogue of algae collected at or near Port Phillip Heads and Western Port. Proc. R. Soc. Vict. 4, 157–190.

WOLLASTON, E.M. (1968).Morphology and taxonomy of southern Australian genera of Crouanieae Schmitz (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta). Aust. J. Bot. 16, 217–417.

WOLLASTON, E.M.(1974). Sexual reproduction in Ballia mariana Harvey and Ballia ballioides (Sonder) Wollaston (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 13, 21–26.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1950). The marine algae of Kangaroo Island. III. List of Species 1. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 73, 137–197.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIC complete list of references.

Author: H.B.S. Womersley & E.M. Wollaston

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 December, 1998)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIC. Ceramiales – Ceramiaceae, Dasyaceae
©State Herbarium of South Australia, Government of South Australia

Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 1998: FIGS 69 D–F, 70 J–N.

Figure 69 image

Figure 69   enlarge

Fig. 69. A–C. Ballia mariana (AD, A27838). A. Habit. B. Branch with major whorl-branchlets opposite 2 minor whorl-branchlets. C. Spermatangial branches. D–F. Ballia ballioides (AD, A9345). D. Habit. E. Axis with a major and 2 minor whorl-branchlets, the major ones with opposite, pinnate, pinnules. F. Part of a whorl-branchlet with opposite, pinnate, pinnules.

Figure 70 image

Figure 70   enlarge

Fig. 70. A–I. Ballia mariana (AD, uncertain). A. Axial cells with whorls of 1 long major branchlet opposite 2 short minor branchlets (diagrammatic). B. Branching of a minor whorl-branchlet. C. Short branches and rhizoids borne on the basal cell of a whorl-branchlet. D. Carpogonial branches on basal cells of major whorl-branchlets. E. Branch with two carpogonial branches on basal cells of whorl-branchlets. F. Post-fertilization development of gonimoblast from fourth cell of auxiliary cell branch, with old carpogonial branch on right. G. Carposporophyte surrounded by involucral branches. H. Spermatangia on cells of a pinna. I. Tetrasporangial branches. J–N. Ballia ballioides (AD, A32875). J. Branch apex with development of a lateral and whorl-branchlets. K. A long (major) whorl-branchlet with two short (minor) whorl-branchlets. L. Carpogonial branches on basal cells of major whorl-branchlets. M. Carposporophyte with involucral whorl-branchlet filaments. N. Tetrasporangia on branched filaments on basal cell of a whorl-branchlet. (All as in Wollaston 1968, courtesy of Aust. J. Bot. and 1974, courtesy of Phycologia.)

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