Electronic Flora of South Australia
Electronic Flora of South Australia
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Electronic Flora of South Australia genus Fact Sheet

Family: Solanaceae

Citation: L., Sp. PI. 184 (1753).

Derivation: Latin name of S. nigrum, the black-berry nightshade.

Synonymy: Not Applicable

Common name: None

Herbs, shrubs or small trees; armed or unarmed; indumentum of simple, glandular or stellate hairs; leaves alternate, petiolate, entire or lobed.

Inflorescence a variously developed cyme, initially terminal soon lateral by sympodial growth, often distant from the leaf, flowers rarely solitary or axillary; calyx 5- rarely 4-lobed; corolla rotate with a short tube and rotate or stellate limb, lobes induplicate-valvate, mostly regular rarely zygomorphic, mostly purplish, white or yellow in some introduced species; filaments mostly very short; anthers oblong or tapered loosely erect or connivent, opening by terminal pores or short slits, exserted; ovary 2-celled, style erect, stigma shortly 2-lobed.

Fruit a berry, mostly succulent, occasionally bony or cartilaginous; seeds suborbicular, biconvex, numerous; embryo curved or spiral surrounding the albumen.

Distribution:  A cosmopolitan genus commonly stated to exceed 1,000 species. Important members include the potato (S. tuberosum L.) from the Andes, the eggplant (S. melongena L.) from India, the weedy silver-leaved nightshade (S. elaeagnifolium Cav.) from North America and black-berry nightshade (S. nigrum L.) from Europe. Nightshades.

Biology: No text

Taxonomic notes: Although S. giganteum Jacq. and S. hoplopetalum Bitter & Summerh. have been recorded from S.Aust., they are not naturalised in this State.

Key to Species:
1. Plants glabrous or width simple hairs, never prickly; anthers oblong
2. Flowers lavender or purple, mostly more than 1 cm diam., rotate
3. Leaveo linear-lanceolate, entire, to 10 mm wide; berry conical.
S. capsiciforme 1.
3. Leaves elliptic or ovate or deeply lobed, mostly wider than 10 mm; berry not conical
4. Ripe fruits yellow, orange to scarlet
5. Flowers broadly stellate, bluish-violet; ripe fruits ellipsoid, orange-scarlet; seeds c. 1.5 mm long
S. aviculare 1.
5. Flowers rotate, purple; ripe fruits ovoid to obovoid, ochre-yellow to orange; seeds c. 2.5 mm long
S. laciniatum 16.
4. Ripe fruits greenish or flushed purple
6. Corolla 2-3 cm diam.; berry globular
S. simile 31.
6. Corolla 3-4 cm diam.; berry obovoid
S. symonii 33.
2. Flowers white, c. 1 cm diam., star-shaped
7. Leaves deeply divided; ripe fruits green with abundant stone cell masses
S. triflorum 34.
7. Leaves entire or shallowly lobed; ripe fruits black or orange-red, if green with few stone cells
8. Plants markedly glandular-pubescent
9. Ripe fruit greenish; calyx enlarged to cover the base of the fruit
S. sarrachoides 30.
9. Ripe fruit orange-red; calyx scarcely enlarged
S. villosum 35.
8. Plants not markedly glandular-pubescent
10. Ripe fruit green
S. opacum 23.
10. Ripe fruit black or orange-red
11. Fruit orange-red; leaves elliptic
S. pseudocapsicum 26.
11. Fruit black; leaves ovate
12. Lobes of leaves obscure; plant often flushed purple, fruiting axis with several nodes
S. nigrum 21.
12. Lobes of leaves distinct; plant green, fruiting axis with a single node
S. retroflexum 28.
1. Plants with stellate hairs, mostly prickly; anthers mostly attenuate
13. Flowers yellow; leaves deeply lobed; seeds black; annuals
S. rostratum 29.
13. Flowers bluish or purple rarely white; leaves various; seeds rarely black; shrubs or herbaceous perennials
14. Leaves 10-15 cm long, entire; stipule-like lobes present; inflorescence compound; fruits erect, never prickly
S. mauritianum 20.
14. Leaves rarely as large, often with some lobes; stipule-like lobes absent; inflorescence mostly simple; fruits pendent, often prickly
15. Fruits enclosed or almost so in the calyx lobes
16. Leaves deeply lobed; prickles conspicuous
S. hystrix 15.
16. Leaves entire; prickles mainly on the stem
S. lasiophyllum 18.
15. Fruits exposed or readily visible between the calyx lobes
17. Leaves more or less orbicular
18. Berry c. 15 mm diam.; seeds pale-buff
S. orbiculatum 24.
18. Berry 4-8 mm diam.; seeds dark-grey to black
S. oligacanthum 22.
17. Leaves not orbicular
19. Fruits finally firm and bony, pale-buff
20. Leaves entire or slightly undulate, without prickles
S. quadriloculatum 27.
20. Leaves lobed, abundantly prickly
21. Undershrubs 20-50 cm; racemes 3-5 cm
S. petrophilum 25.
21. Erect shrubs 0.5-2 m; racemes 3-10 cm
S. eardleyae 8.
19. Fruits fleshy or mucilaginous, red, yellowish, greenish to dark-brown
22. Fruits to 10 mm diam., red; basal lobes of leaves well developed
23. Leaves to 7 mm wide, basal lobes small
S. ferocissimum 13.
23. Leaves more than 15 mm wide; basal lobes developed
S. chenopodinum 4.
22. Fruits greater than 10 mm diam., not red; basal lobes of leaves not conspicuous
24. Leaves 10-12 cm long, with a distinct pale margin; fruits to 3-4 cm diam
S. marginatum 19.
24. Leaves rarely up to 10 cm long, without a distinct pale margin; fruits rarely up to 3 cm diam
25. Woody shrubs, mostly over 50 cm tall
26. Leaves entire; fruit 1-1.5 cm diam
S. sturtianum 32.
26. Leaves lobed; fruit 2-3 cm diam
S. hermanni 14.
25. Herbaceous perennials, rarely up to 50 cm tall
27. Leaves lobed
28. Leaf lobes narrow, c. 5 mm broad; prickles red; flowers purple-blue
S. lacunarium 17.
28. Leaf lobes broader, c. 10 mm broad; prickles brownish; flowers purple
S. eremophilum 11.
27. Leaves entire or with an undulate margin, rarely clearly lobed
29. Plants unarmed or with a few prickles towards the base of the stem
30. Leaves green or grey-green
S. esuriale 12.
30. Leaves rusty-pubescent
S. centrale 3.
29. Plants mostly prickly
31. Branches mostly spreading or sprawling; mature fruits green or flushed purplish
32. Flowers small, pale-lavender, often not opening
S. cleistogamum 6.
32. Flowers showy, purple
S. ellipticum 10.
31. Branches mostly erect; mature fruits yellowish
33. Prickles fine, needle-like; plants erect, branching above; anthers c. 8 mm long
S. elaeagnifolium 9.
33. Prickles coarser, often slightly hooked; plants branching below; anthers c. 6 mm long
S. coactiliferum 7.

Author: Prepared by D. E. Symon

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